Sunday, July 27, 2014
Today in this article I will show you how to solve 0-1 Knapsack problem using the concept of dynamic programming in Java. This problem can also be solved by recursion but the problem is that it will result in solving of already solved sub-problem. So we will be using dynamic programming to solve by storing the results of solved sub-problems. Also this technique can be used to solve the problem in polynomial time. The complexity of solving it using this algorithm is O(n*W).
What is 0/1 Knapsack problem ?
The knapsack or rucksack problem is a problem in combinatorial optimization. Here there are a set of items(n) which has a profit value(v) and weight(w). There is a bag which has a maximum capacity(W). Now the problem is to fill the bag with the following restrictions :
   1. You can either choose an item completely or reject it. (0 or 1)
   2. The total weight of bag must not exceed its maximum capacity W. i.e. (Sum of w[i]) <= W
   3.  The total value or profit of items chosen must be maximum. i.e. Sum of p[i] is maximum
where 0 <  i <=n.
How to solve 0/1 Knapsack problem in Java ?
Step1: Structure: Characterize the structure of an optimal solution.
    – Decompose the problem into smaller problems, and find a relation between the structure of the optimal solution of the original problem and the solutions of the smaller problems.

Step2: Principle of Optimality: Recursively define the value of an optimal solution.
    – Express the solution of the original problem in terms of optimal solutions for smaller problems.
Step 3: Bottom-up computation: Compute the value of an optimal solution in a bottom-up fashion by using a table structure.

Step 4: Construction of optimal solution: Construct an optimal solution from computed information.
Java Source Code
import java.util.Scanner;

public class Knapsack {
 private int n,W;  //number of items and maximum capacity
 private int w[],v[];  //weights and values of items
 private int V[][];  //table to store results of sub-problems
  * Takes necessary inputs and initializes for solving
 private void initialize(){
  Scanner sc = new Scanner(;
  System.out.print("Enter number of items : ");
  n = sc.nextInt();  //number of items
  System.out.print("Enter W of knapsack : ");
  W = sc.nextInt();  //capacity of knapsack
  w = new int[n];
  v = new int[n];
  System.out.println("Enter ws and vs of items : ");
  for(int i = 0; i < n; i++){
   w[i] = sc.nextInt();  //weight of item
   v[i] = sc.nextInt();  //profit of item
  V = new int[n+1][W+1];  //initializing the table to hold results
  for(int i = 0; i <= W; i++) V[0][i] = 0;
  * Computes the result
 public void knapsack(){
  //table for backtracking to get the items chosen
  int x[][] = new int[n+1][W+1];
  //filling tables
  for(int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
   for(int j = 0; j <= W; j++)
    if((w[i-1] <= j) && (v[i-1]+V[i-1][j-w[i-1]] > V[i-1][j])){
     V[i][j] = v[i-1] + V[i-1][j-w[i-1]];
     x[i][j] = 1;
     V[i][j] = V[i-1][j];
     x[i][j] = 0;
  System.out.printf("Items Chosen\n%5s%7s%7s\n", "Item","Weight","Profit");
  int K = W;
  for(int i = n; i >= 1; i--)
   if(x[i][K] == 1){
    K -= w[i-1];
  System.out.println("Maximum profit : "+V[n][W]);
 public static void main(String[] args) {
  Knapsack obj = new Knapsack();
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